Geology is the study of Earth. Geology studies the composition of Earth and all of the elements and materials that make it up. The structure of the Earth, including plate techtonics, the different layers of the Earth and the atmosphere are all part of biology. Geology is also one of the only sciences that deals with the history and formation of the planet. Geologists help locate many of Earth's natural resources in the form of metals, gems, minerals, and elements including quartz, sulfur, gold, petroleum, coal, iron, and helium. few principles important to geological studies. The principle of intrusive relationships shows the mixes of young and old rock which allow geologists to understand the happenings there. Faults allow geologists to understand how the plates of Earth's crust move.This means that geologists can study what happened to Earth in the past by observing what is happening now. Younger layers of rock can slip between older layers, layers are basically horizontal, and fossils found in different layers of rock can give information about the life at that time.inner core, the outer core, the mantle, and the crust. It only snows about 2 inches per year over most of Antarctica.The largest desert on Earth is on the Antarctic continent. 90% of all volcanic activity occurs in the Earth's oceans.deepest point in the ocean is 6.8 miles down.In polar areas in mid-summer, there is no night -- daylight lasts almost 24 hours a day.